Remarkable fossils reveal jellyfish that lived 505 million years ago

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The oldest examples of swimming jellyfish, which lived in Earth’s oceans 505 million years in the past, have been found excessive inside the Canadian Rockies. Researchers discovered 182 fossils encased inside the rock of the famed Burgess Shale fossil website.

The fossils belong to a beforehand unknown species of jellyfish, referred to as Burgessomedusa phasmiformis, that reveals simply how advanced these creatures already have been thousands and thousands of years in the past.

The exceptionally well-preserved fossils are a outstanding discover, provided that the soft-bodied animals are made from 95% water. The jellyfish measure about 8 inches (20 centimeters) in size.

A rock slab shows one large (right) and one small (left) bell-shaped jellyfish with tentacles. The smaller animal is rotated 180 degrees. - Jean-Bernard Caron/Royal Ontario Museum

A rock slab reveals one massive (proper) and one small (left) bell-shaped jellyfish with tentacles. The smaller animal is rotated 180 levels. – Jean-Bernard Caron/Royal Ontario Museum

A examine detailing the findings was printed Tuesday within the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Jellyfish are medusozoans, or animals with an umbrella-shaped physique and stinging tentacles, just like the legendary snake-haired Medusa. Medusozoans, corals and sea anemones fall below a bigger group referred to as Cnidaria, one of many oldest teams of animals to exist on the planet.

Cnidarians can have totally different physique kinds inside their life cycle, together with a polyp, which is formed like a vase and often connected to one thing just like the seafloor.

Medusozoans take their identify from a type referred to as the medusa, which is a bell or saucer-shaped physique. Medusozoans start as polyps and are able to taking type as medusas inside their life cycle, a few of which have the flexibility to freely swim. Medusozoans embody trendy field jellies, hydroids, stalked jellyfish and true jellyfish.

The multitude of Burgessomedusa phasmiformis fossils on the website confirmed that giant, swimming bell-shaped jellyfish advanced greater than 500 million years in the past.

“Although jellyfish and their relatives are thought to be one of the earliest animal groups to have evolved, they have been remarkably hard to pin down in the Cambrian fossil record. This discovery leaves no doubt they were swimming about at that time,” stated examine coauthor Joe Moysiuk, a doctoral candidate in ecology and evolutionary biology on the College of Toronto, in a press release. He’s based mostly on the Royal Ontario Museum.

Treasure trove of uncommon fossils

Whereas fossilized polyps have been discovered relationship again 560 million years, it has been harder for researchers to hint the origins of free-swimming jellyfish.

Lots of the fossils have been initially collected on the Burgess Shale within the Nineteen Eighties and Nineteen Nineties throughout excavations carried out below Desmond Collins, former Royal Ontario Museum curator of invertebrate paleontology.

The Burgess Shale's Raymond Quarry, where the fossils were found, is located high in the mountains of Canada's Yoho National Park in the province of British Columbia. - Desmond Collins/Royal Ontario Museum

The Burgess Shale’s Raymond Quarry, the place the fossils have been discovered, is positioned excessive within the mountains of Canada’s Yoho Nationwide Park within the province of British Columbia. – Desmond Collins/Royal Ontario Museum

But it surely has taken time to type by and examine all the particular person specimens.

The Burgess Shale was first found in 1909 by Charles D. Walcott, secretary of the Smithsonian Establishment in Washington, DC. The 508 million-year-old website is a gold mine of well-preserved fossils, together with these of soft-bodied animals. Along with preserving bone, the positioning consists of extremely detailed imprints and descriptions of the smooth tissue and inside anatomy of extra delicate sea creatures, which is uncommon within the fossil file.

The positioning is so well-preserved as a result of an underwater avalanche of advantageous silt and dirt rapidly trapped a big group of animals, showcasing the range of life residing in Earth’s oceans on the time. These specimens embody now-extinct creatures that don’t have any relation to any present life-forms on Earth. The animals primarily turned laminated between layers of mud that fossilized over time.

Mushy-bodied predators

The intricate Burgessomedusa phasmiformis fossils at the moment are on show on the Royal Ontario Museum, as a part of its Burgess Shale assortment.

The extra that researchers examine fossils from the Burgess Shale, the extra complicated the traditional meals chain turns into. At first, scientists thought massive swimming arthropods, just like the Anomalocaris seen in one of many identical rock fossils preserving Burgessomedusa, have been the primary predators.

Jellyfish (left) and Anomalocaris canadensis (right), the top arthropod predator of the Cambrian Period, were preserved in the same rock slab. - Desmond Collins/Royal Ontario Museum

Jellyfish (left) and Anomalocaris canadensis (proper), the highest arthropod predator of the Cambrian Interval, have been preserved in the identical rock slab. – Desmond Collins/Royal Ontario Museum

However Burgessomedusa, with its 90 finger-like tentacles that might seize prey, could have been a formidable marine predator as properly.

“Finding such incredibly delicate animals preserved in rock layers on top of these mountains is such a (wondrous) discovery. Burgessomedusa adds to the complexity of Cambrian foodwebs, and like Anomalocaris which lived in the same environment, these jellyfish were efficient swimming predators,” stated examine coauthor Dr. Jean-Bernard Caron, the Royal Ontario Museum’s Richard Ivey Curator of Invertebrate Palaeontology, in a press release. “This adds yet another remarkable lineage of animals that the Burgess Shale has preserved chronicling the evolution of life on Earth.”

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